COPD – Recovery with Pulmonary Rehab

What is COPD ?COPD- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DIsease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a collection of lung diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and chronic obstructive airways disease.

People with COPD have difficulties breathing, primarily due to the narrowing of their airways, this is called airflow obstruction.

CHRONIC –This means that the disease lasts a long time and is always present. While the symptoms may take years to develop and the severity may differ at times, there is still much you can do to slow the progress of the disease.

OBSTRUCTIVE – The ability to move air flow in and out of your lungs is blocked or obstructed. This is caused by swelling and extra mucus in the tubes of the lungs (airways) which carry air in and out.

PULMONARY – This means that the disease is located in your lungs.

DISEASE – Your lungs have some damage. But even though a cure hasn’t been found yet, your symptoms can be treated.

 

Symptoms: COPD vs Asthma

Symptoms of COPD can be different for each person, but typical symptoms include:

  • Breathlessness when active
  • A cough that won’t go away and may produce mucus
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Frequent chest infections

Why does COPD Happen ?

Smoking is the most common cause of COPD. (About 80-90 percent of people with COPD smoked.) The likelihood of developing COPD increases with – the more you smoke and the longer you’ve been smoking. This is because smoking irritates and inflames the lungs, which results in scarring.

COPD can also be caused by breathing-in lung irritants like smoke at workplace, chemical fumes, air pollution and dust for many years.

In some cases, COPD can be genetic (passed from your parents to you).

Diagnosis

COPD is usually diagnosed after a consultation with your doctor, which may be followed by breathing tests (including Spirometry or lung function test or pulmonary function test).

Spirometry measures how much air your lungs can hold and how fast you can blow the air out of your lungs. Spirometry is also used to track how your COPD is progressing.

Treatments for COPD

Although the damage that has already occurred to your lungs cannot be reversed, correct treatment can slow down the progression of the disease and improve the COPD symptoms. This makes it easier for you to breathe and feel better.

Stopping smoking is particularly effective at doing this.

Treatments for COPD usually involve :

1. Medication : Majority of the COPD symptoms can be relieved with medication. Medicines must be taken as directed by your doctor. COPD medicines usually help in a lot ways that makes breathing easier. Vicious cycle of COPD

  • Relax the muscles around the lungs’ breathing tubes
  • Reduce swelling in the breathing tubes
  • Reduce mucus production

2. Pulmonary rehabilitation : If you are having difficulty with your breathing or become short of breath when performing your normal daily routines, Pulmonary rehab can particularly be of great help. It may also help increase the amount of exercise you are capable of doing.

Studies have shown that pulmonary rehabilitation programmes are extremely effective in treating COPD. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), UK has produced various documents supporting the use of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes.

Pulmonary rehab programmes significantly improve the patient’s health by reducing breathlessness, providing ways to control the disease and by improving the patient’s ability to carry out daily activities, such as bathing and dressing.

Physiotherapy and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a treatment program. It provides exercise training, education about COPD, tips on how to complete everyday activities without becoming so short of breath and advice on how to live better with your disease. Physiotherapists trained in pulmonary function are specially trained to run the pulmonary rehab for COPD patients. They use specialized physiotherapy techniques to help people cope with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and its symptoms.

Pulmonary experts at ReLiva Physiotherapy & Rehab can  design a program specific to your COPD condition and lifestyle and help you lead a better life with fewer incidents  of flare-ups.

People living with COPD can benefit enormously if they receive proper treatment including Pulmonary rehabilitation. They can live longer, have less pain, anxiety, depression and fatigue, a better quality of life and are more active and independent by simply learning to manage th eir condition properly.

Related articles :

Dos and Don’ts for Managing Asthma

Managing & Preventing Asthma Attacks

This article is purely for general information. Please contact your healthcare expert for specialised medical care. Please go through our Disclaimer and Privacy policy.

arthritis joint pain treatment

Arthritis – Do your Joints Pain?

The disorder commonly affecting the knee and other joints is called as Arthritis.

We commonly see our mothers or grandmothers groaning in pain when they try to do simple activities like getting up from the floor or climbing steps. Daily simple chores seem very difficult for them. They dread even the pleasant rains and winters as they are likely to experience increase in their aches and pains with the fall in temperature.

Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. It is common in adults 65 and older, but it can affect people of all ages. There are many types of arthritis but most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

1. Rheumatoid Arthritis : It is an autoimmune disease in which the body immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, a tough membrane that encloses the joint parts known as synovial membrane. It is characterized by fluctuating course, with periods of flares and remission.

2. Osteoarthritis : It is a chronic degenerative disorder involves wear and tear damage to the joint’s cartilage. Enough damage results in bone grinding which causes pain and restricted movement and joint effusion.

Symptoms of Arthritis

The most common symptoms of Arthritis include pain, redness in the area, swelling,  limited movement & stiffness in the joint.

Unpaid attention to these symptoms can lead you to be under the surgeon’s knife.  But timely attention to the soft ringing of bells of your joints can help you deal effectively with your joint pain.

 

Arthritis, Joint pain : Facts, symptoms, Physiotherapy treatment

Treatment 

Physiotherapy is key to the treatment and management of arthritis.  It can help you to maintain independence through improving your mobility, strength and flexibility.

Used along with medication it can also help to minimise pain.

Physiotherapy for arthritis focuses on the reduction of pain and stiffness as well as increasing the level of movement and range of motion for the individual.

Our experts at ReLivaTM use a combination of modalities, manual therapy techniques and exercise and movement programmes to suit your specific condition. They will aim to reduce the swelling in the affected area along with making a strategy to control pain and stiffness. They will also devise simple exercise programmes that you can practise at home to help you build your strength and flexibility.

Physiotherapy uses a mix of Modalities

  • Heat treatments : These treatments produce heat within your body tissues. The application can be directed towards superficial or deeper parts of the body. The most common types of treatment used are infra-red radiation (heat lamps) and hot packs for superficial treatments.
  • Electrotherapy : These treatments produce electrical stimulation of your body tissues. They may be extremely useful in the treatment of both acute and chronic arthritis, where pain, swelling and muscle spasms are present. Physiotherapy exercise for Arthritis, joints pain
  • Exercise : A balanced programme of rest and exercise, and careful attention to joint posture is an important part of pain management, joint protection and maintenance of your joint function.
  • Manual therapy: Mobilisation and manipulation techniques are passive movements applied to a joint or soft tissue by the therapist in a specific manner to help restore full movement to a joint that is painful and restricted. Manual therapy is often useful in the chronic forms of arthritis and is often successful when other methods such as heat therapy and exercises have given little or no relief.
  • TENS : Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy is a commonly used electrostimulation method for relieving pain in rheumatoid arthritis.

 

Simple Tips to help avoid pain and stiffness:

  • Avoid staying in one position for long.
  • Avoid positions or movements that place extra stress on sore joints.
  • Avoid sitting on floor.
  • Modify your activities to make them easier.
  • Take proper rest when your symptoms are on a rise.
  • Try to lose weight if over-weight, as it reduces pressure on joints and alleviates pain.
recovery from knee pain

Dreams come true!

Painful knees are a very common occurrence among the elderly and so was with Mr Narayanaswamy. He continued to live with painful knees which eventually hampered his everyday activity. There was chronic pain and despite medication his walking and general movement began to decline. He continued to console himself that the reduced activity and stamina was owing to his increasing age.

But after a prolonged period of about two years, by when he was bed-ridden and almost totally inactive – he underwent total knee replacement as advised by his doctor.

After an initial rehab of knee replacement, an average person usually reports significant improvement in walking and other movements. Unfortunately Mr Narayanaswamy was not showing any signs of recovery. Instead he consistently suffered from fever and weight loss. Eventually a TB infection was diagnosed that had affected the TKR implant too. So a revision surgery had to be performed on him shortly, thereafter.

It is at this stage that I got to meet Mr S. Narayanaswamy – who had gone through so much in the last two years. Not just being physically weak he was feeling mentally drained too. He recalls “After I came from the hospital, I was very low on physical as well as mental strength. I was depressed also.  Even the slightest of movement made me breathless.

I was to be his home visit Physiotherapist from ReLiva. On his initial assessment, I realized that it was not just his stamina, he was even having difficulty balancing himself while standing. He had been bed-ridden and completely inactive for more than a year.

As a physiotherapist, I identified that his immediate goal was to improve his balance, regain strength and thereafter build up his stamina. All of these eventually will help him regain self-confidence.

Together we worked hard day-in and day-out. I would visit him regularly at his place and work on his goals through a combination of therapy and exercises. Gradually he showed signs of recovery and began to stand properly on his own. We systematically progressed to the next set of exercises. Now I had prescribed him several movements to be done on his own during the rest of the day. The committed and sincere person that he was, he would do those home exercises diligently on most occasions. We were moving from one strength to another.

It was at the end of another session of physiotherapy when he broke the news with a beaming smile that he was thinking of visiting his daughter abroad!

We had come a long way. Here was a man who was completely bed-ridden for a year and a half and could not even speak on the telephone for more than a minute and NOW – he wanted to travel overseas! He was daring to dream and together we shall have to make his dream come true! We now worked towards a deadline when he could walk independently to take this long journey on his own.

After another bout of intense physiotherapy, he reported, “my energy level has gone up, I have regained my emotional strength, there is no depression, no breathlessness! I am walking properly and climbing stairs.”

Last, I saw him the day before he was to take his flight and he walked on his own with his walking stick. We did some strengthening exercises which he would continue doing on his own while he was away. He told me that “I am a happy individual now. I am back to life!” … what he didn’t realise was : What a happy and delighted therapist he was leaving behind in me watching his dream come true!

As shared by Dr Shrutika Parab (PT). Dr Shrutika is a home visit physiotherapist with ReLiva Physiotherapy. She is immensely popular among her clients for her enthusiastic and positive approach. You can contact her directly at ReLiva (+91 9920991584) or email to her at contact@reliva.in.

fracture healing physiotherapy

Fracture: Leaving it half healed?

Most fractured (broken) bones will heal in usually six weeks. But that is only half of the problemFracture: Leaving it Half healed

Unfortunately when you have enough stress placed through your body to fracture a bone, there’s usually a lot of other soft tissues and structures that have been damaged in the process. Add to that the common use of immobilisation in plaster, you’ll have joint stiffness and considerable muscle weakness.

This may even effect joints that don’t seem related to the break. For example, a fractured shoulder may result in a very stiff elbow or wrist just because you were keeping your shoulder in a sling for a few weeks.

Fractures like most injuries, come in many forms from relatively minor fractures to major life threatening injuries.  The following information will allow you to find out where your fracture fits in this continuum so you have a better understanding of what it is, how and why it occurred, what the healing process involves and what you can do to assist this process.

 

broken bone   What is a Fracture?

A Fracture happens when there is a break in the continuity of a bone.  It is common and on an average a person has two fractures, during a lifetime.

Most of the time, fractures are caused by a sudden injury that loads, stresses or pressurises the bone more than it can take – such as trauma from motorvehicle accidents or falls.

A Fracture may also be the result of some medical conditions which weaken the bones, for e.g. Osteoporosis, some cancers or osteomyelitis.

Your risk of fracture depends, in part, on your age. Broken bones are very common in childhood, though children fractures are generally less complicated than fractures in adults. Most human bones are surprisingly strong and can generally stand up to fairly strong forces. However, if that force is too powerful, or there is something wrong with the bone, it can fracture.

As you age, your bones become brittle and you are more likely to suffer fractures from falls that would not occur when you are young. The older we get the less force our bones can withstand.

Types of Fracture:Types of Fracture in bones

  1. Open/Compound fracture – when the bone breaks through the skin and damages the underlying tissue. Fractures that are open to the outside are more prone to infection.
  2. Closed/simple fracture – when bone breaks but the skin is intact showing no wound on the outside.
  3. Displaced fracture – when the bone cracks and/or moves away from its usual alignment.
  4. Non-displaced fracture – when the bone cracks but stays in alignment.

A broken bone requires Immediate Medical Attention for proper healing and alignment of bone. Following a fracture, the patient will first be managed by a doctor, who will decide on management option, be it conservative or surgical. Conservative management of broken bones can be done with immobilization with casting or splinting.

Most fractured bones usually take 6 weeks to heal but that is only half of the problem.

Treatment Of Fractures (Post CAST Removal) : Do not leave it half healed!

A lot of soft tissues and structures gets damaged due to fracture and after immobilization in plaster for several weeks, you tend to get pain, joint stiffness and considerable muscle weakness. This may even affect other joints as well resulting into hindrance in dailiy activities.

Physiotherapy Rehab is required to regain the muscle strength and function.

When Should You Start Physiotherapy?

Physiotherapy is often recommended by doctors to accelerate the healing process once bone is aligned. Physiotherapy manipulation, electrotherapy, joint mobilization techniques and exercises will aid strengthening the bone and the surrounding tissue. This process will help the patient recovery by accelerating healing, reduce pain and swelling, and improve range of motion.

The type of therapy will, of course, differ based on the type of fracture. But in general, therapy begins when the cast is removed. Strengthening and aggressive range of motion exercises usually must wait until the bone has healed.  The Physiotherapist may also assess the requirement and suggest and train you to use assistive devices during the recovery. Gait training is also done wherever, required.

 Remember 

  • Seek treatment at an early stage
  • Ensure your physiotherapist provides you with home exercises.

More Information?

Please contact one of our clinics directly for advice specific to your fracture. You can make an appointment with ReLiva Physiotherapy & Rehab at any stage. This is especially important if you believe you are not making satisfactory progress in your recovery, or if your mobility is compromised.

This article is purely for general information. Please contact your healthcare expert for specialised medical care. Please go through our Disclaimer and Privacy policy.

ReLiva Tips for an Injury-free Run

5 Tips to Prepare for an Injury-free Run                                                            

For runners, taking on a run for the first time, the key is to have a solid training base and a detailed plan that allows
for a gradual increase in SPEED as well as DISTANCE.

Too Much. Too Soon. Too Fast

The most common issue that we see is the “Terrible Too’s”. You suddenly get up and start to train without a plan and end up doing “ Too much. Too soon, Too fast”
And that is the most common cause of Injury!
Chalk out a plan of training! Even better, if you do it along with a trained expert. The training plan should strike a balance between speed and strength. It would help you build up stamina, strength and endurance gradually, without causing any injury.

Prevention is better than Cure

Always remember to warm up, before you start running. Many injuries can be avoided by:
warming up  and stretching regularly
Spending 10 minutes to warm up before each run will definitely cost you much lesser time than if you injure yourself and wait back to recover.
However if you do injure, it’s best to see a physiotherapy expert immediately to chalk out a quick recovery plan.

Mix Things Up

It is very easy to get into a habit of running the same route, at the same pace during your training. That begins to limit your muscles and their strength.
“Mix things up!”
Challenge your body with harder runs on certain days and recover at a slower pace another day. This will work-out many more muscles in a much more variety and keep them prepared against injuries.

Keep Moving

Any good training plan needs no more than four days of running or walking every week. That’s not too much to do!
It is important that you don’t overdo it! And equally important, that you keep doing it sincerely! You can make the switch from run & Walk to only run if you
find it too easy. The day you feel, you’re not ready, continue to do walking! But ensure that you ‘Keep Moving’.

Look after your Body

While you train for your run, your body and muscles undergo a lot of wear and tear. Listen to your body! If you are tired, it’s a sign that the body needs rest! Overtraining immediately shows in form of decreased performance and injuries !
Look after your body. Swimming, Sauna or steam room can really help relax and stretch on a bit.

With these 5 things you can easily train for your run without worrying to injure yourself. Enjoy every step that you take to prepare yourself. Remember – “It only makes you stronger and better than what you were before!”

This article is an attempt to make the runners aware of the general thumb rules about running related injuries. These guidelines should not take the place of medical advice if attempting to return to sports following an injury. If an athlete requires assistance during or in the progression of a return to sport program they should consult with their medical expert, or physiotherapist

DISC Prolapse

Physiotherapy provides a successful treatment for spinal disc prolapse rehabilitation. Typically the treatment includes back pain relief and protection, exercise program for lower abdomen and core stability, restoration of function and preventing a recurrence.

ReLiva Physiotherapy provides Disc prolapse rehabilitation for managing such symptoms at its clinics in Navi Mumbai and Thane. The treatment phases are described hereunder:

1. Back Pain Relief & Protection:

Our physiotherapists will use an array of treatment tools to reduce your back pain and inflammation. These include: ice, electrotherapy, and unloading taping techniques. Apart from these certain techniques or exercises that unload the inflamed structures are also utilized to provide pain relief and reduce inflammation.

2. Prolapsed Disc Exercises:

  • As your pain and inflammation settles, our physiotherapist will turn their attention to restoring your normal joint alignment and range of motion, muscle length and resting tension, muscle strength and endurance.
  • Our physiotherapist will commence you on a lower abdominal and core stability program to facilitate your important muscles that dynamically control and stabilize your spine.
  • Our physiotherapist may recommend a stretching program to address your tight or shortened muscles.

3. Restoring Full Function:

Depending on your chosen work, sport or activities of daily living, our physiotherapist will aim to restore your function to safely allow you to return to your desired activities. Everyone has different demands for their body that will determine what specific treatment goals you need to achieve. For some it is simply to walk around the block. Others may wish to run a marathon.

Your physiotherapist will tailor your back rehabilitation to help you achieve your own functional goals.

4. Preventing a Recurrence:

Back pain does have a tendency to return. The main reason it is thought to recur is due to insufficient rehabilitation. In particular, poor compliance with deep abdominal and core muscle exercises. You should continue a version of these exercises routinely a few times per week.

 

Back PainBack Pain Cycle

 

What is PIVD or Disc Prolapse?

The term PIVD /prolapsed intervertebral disc means the protrusion or extrusion of the nucleus pulposus through a rent in the annulus fibrosus

  • Between the bones (vertebrae) of your spinal column are discs that contain a gel-like substance.
  • These discs allow the back to flex and bend, and act as shock absorbers between the vertebrae.
  • When one of these discs ruptures, the gel-like substance can bulge out putting pressure on nearby nerves. This condition is referred to as a herniated disc, prolapsed disc, or slipped disc and can cause severe back pain and other symptoms.
  • The most common age to develop a herniated disc is between 30 and 50 years. Men are affected nearly twice as often as women are.
  • The discs between the spinal vertebrae are composed of a tough outer casing (the annulus) with a gel-like centre (the nucleus).
  • A herniated disc occurs when the annulus of the disc tears and the contents of the disc are pushed out through this tear. The bulging disc material may press on nearby nerves causing pain and affecting function.

As we age the discs become less flexible and begin to harden, making them more prone to tears. A herniated disc can be caused by a single excessive strain or injury. However, as degeneration of the discs progresses with age, some people may suffer herniated discs from more minor exertions or twists.

 

Spine Disc herniation stagesDisc Bulge in Lumbar Spine

 

CAUSES OF DISC PROLAPSE:

  • Ageing
  • Being overweight (creating more pressure on the spinal column)
  • Smoking (which can contribute to the degeneration of discs)
  • Incorrect lifting of heavy weights.
  • Repetitive strenuous activity.

Signs and symptoms:

The most common symptom of a herniated disc is sciatica:

  • This is characterized by a sharp, often shooting pain that extends from the buttocks down the back of one leg, and is caused by pressure on the sciatic nerve. Other symptoms that may be experienced as the result of a herniated disc include:
  • Lower back pain
  • Leg or arm pain
  • Abnormal sensations such as tingling, numbness or pins and needles in one arm, one leg or buttock
  • Burning pain in the shoulders, neck, arm or central back
  • Muscle weakness.

If problems with bowel or bladder function are experienced this may be a sign of cauda equine syndrome - a rare but serious complication of a herniated disc. Immediate medical attention should be sought if this is suspected.

BENEFITS OF PHYSIOTHERAPY:

  • 1. Physiotherapy helps reduce pain.
  • 3. Increases core strength making your spine more stable to prevent further injuries.
  • 4. Physiotherapy helps achieve your functional goals.

INTERESTING FACTS:

  • A bulging disc may be as painful as an herniated disc
  • Prolapsed discs cannot be diagnosed with an x-ray. You need an MRI
  • Many disc pain conditions are misdiagnosed

If I were to gather a group of middle age folks (45 average age) who have NEVER had back pain before and shoot MRIs on them all, here's what we would find:38% would have disc bulges,

  • 37% disc protrusions (aka: contained herniations),
  • 11% disc extrusions (aka: non-contained herniations),
  • 0% disc sequestrations (aka: free fragments) and
  • 4% nerve root compression by the disc herniation.

A more shocking statistic is that 60% of asymptomatic middle aged people would have findings of disc bulge or worse (protrusion, extrusion) on MRI!

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